Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN or LPN) describes a class of network protocols for connecting low-power devices such as battery-powered sensors to a network server. The protocol is designed to achieve long range and low energy consumption of the end devices at low operating cost. The network consists of end devices (also called nodes, motes), gateways (also called base stations) that relay data between the end devices and network servers. The network devices control the end devices and evaluate the received data. The physical connection between end devices and gateways can take place via license-free frequencies of the radio spectrum (ISM band, white space) or mobile radio frequencies, the connection between gateways and network servers via IP connections.